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Symposium speakers

Keynote Speaker: Lt.-Gen. (retired) Romeo Dallaire

The National Speaker’s Bureau describes Roméo Dallaire as “a true hero and an outspoken leader for the 21st century, who is passionate about the humanism necessary in today's organizations.” A decorated Lieutenant-General, Roméo Dallaire served for 35 years with the Canadian Armed Forces before he retired in 2000. Dallaire has spearheaded the effort to redefine the long-term professional training and development requirements of the Canadian Forces officer corps. His most famous command appointment was his peacekeeping and United Nations Assistance mission as Commander - United Nations Observer Mission: Uganda and Rwanda. The horrifying images and actions of that war have left Dallaire to fight back against his own mind, as a victim of post-traumatic stress disorder. One of the most vocal military personnel to bring this disorder to the public, he remains as strong and courageous a leader in the reforms of the Canadian Forces mental health system.

While tribunals continue to discuss the tragedy in Rwanda, consensus reigns on Dallaire's involvement - Gerry McCarthy, a UNICEF official who was in Rwanda during the genocide, thought that of the entire UN, "Dallaire was the one shining beacon." Stephen Lewis, Member of the United Nations' panel of "eminent persons," declared, "If there is one exemplary human being in all of this, it's Gen. Dallaire."

Dallaire's areas of expertise, now shared with audiences around the world, include presentations on leadership and professional development, and international conflict resolution.

He has received a Fellowship at the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Kennedy School of Government, at Harvard University to pursue his research in conflict resolution.

His recently released book, Shake Hands With the Devil, is an account of his experience as the Force Commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission to Rwanda and exposes the failures by humanity to stop the genocide, despite timely warnings. The book became a best-seller in Canada in 2003 and is set for US release. In addition, the producer of the Oscar award winning Bowling for Columbine plans to make a movie of Dallaire's life story.

Panel 1: The Role of Hate Media in Rwanda

Alison Des Forges is senior adviser to Human Rights Watch’s Africa Division. She is also the author of Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda.

Marcel Kabanda is a Rwandan historian and co-author of Les Medias du Genocide.

Jean-Pierre Chretien is a historian and one of the co-authors of Rwanda : Les Medias du Genocide. He has held teaching positions at l'École normale supérieure du Burundi, l’Université de Lille III and since 1973 has been a researcher in African history at the CNRS in Paris. From 1986 to 2001 he directed a a research lab at the l'Université Paris 1 called "Mutations africaines dans la longue durée" where he continues to hold the title of Research Director, Emeritus. His publications have focused on the history of east Africa, particularly the Great Lakes region. His publications include: Burundi. L'histoire retrouvée, Rwanda, les médias du génocide, Le défi de l'ethnisme and The Great lakes of Africa. He contributed to UNESCO’s l'Histoire générale de l'Afrique and has edited collections on ethnicity, religion and the relationship between memory and history in Africa. In relation to the Rwanda genocide, he worked for the NGO Médecins sans frontières in 1994 and Reporters sans frontières in 1995. He has also testifed as an expert witness before commissions of inquiry in Belgium and France, the OAU and in 2002 as a witness before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.

Binaifer Nowrojee a distinguished human rights advocate, is currently counsel with the Africa division of Human Rights Watch. After graduating from Columbia Law School, Ms. Nowrojee worked for numerous human rights organizations, including the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, Amnesty International, the Swedish NGO Foundation for Human Rights, and the Women's Rights Project of Human Rights Watch. Ms. Nowrojee is the author of scores of articles and book on human rights, including the areas of humanitarian intervention, gender-based violations, and forced displacement. Originally from Kenya, Ms. Nowrojee is no stranger to Harvard, where she earned an LL.M. She is the author of Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath.

Frank Chalk (chairperson) is co-director of the Montreal Institure for Genocide and Human Rights Studies. He is the co-author, with Prof. Kurt Jonassohn, of The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies (Yale University Press, 1990). Prof. Chalk’s chapters and articles have appeared in a number of books and journals, including Holocaust and Genocide Studies. He has lectured and presented papers on genocide at conferences and universities around the world and before the Prosecution Staff of the International Criminal Tribunal on the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda at The Hague.

Professor Chalk has served as President of the International Association of Genocide Scholars (June 1999-June 2001), and is a past president of the Canadian Association of African Studies. He is the Co-Director of the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies at Concordia University, where he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on the history and sociology of genocide, the Holocaust, and the history of United States foreign relations. During his sabbatical leave in the academic year 2000-2001, Prof. Chalk was a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. He is an Associate Editor of the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, scheduled for publication by the Gale Group in 2004.

Professor Chalk’s current research focuses on two areas: radio broadcasting in the incitement and interdiction of gross violations of human rights, including genocide, and the history of the domestic laws on genocide developed by nations who seek to implement through their national legislation the United Nations Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. He expects both research projects to result in books. His most recent publications include chapters on “Hate Radio in Rwanda,” published in The Path of A Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire, Howard Adelman and Astri Suhrke, editors (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press, 1999) and “Radio Broadcasting in the Incitement and Interdiction of Gross Violations of Human Rights, including Genocide,” in Genocide: Essays Toward Understanding, Early Warning, and Prevention, Roger Smith, editor (Association of Genocide Scholars, 1999).

Mary Kimani (discussant) joined Internews in October 1999 as part of a team of covering the trials at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Burundi Peace Talks. She was initially assigned to cover the Bagilishema and Media Trials full time as well as the Father and Son Trial of Elizaphan and Gerald Ntakirutimana. Ms Kimani has also written her masters thesis on the psychology of communication, studying the use of media to incite violence in Rwanda. Ms Kimani now based in Kigali Rwanda, as part of the Justice and Rwanda project team. The project aims at using media to bring information about the justice and reconciliation project to people in the rural areas as well as Rwandan prisons. Ms Kimani’s stories have been published by a variety of media including Reuters and Time Magazine.

Panel 2: Journalism as Genocide: the Media Trial

Simone Monasebian has been a Trial Attorney with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda , Office of the Prosecutor, where she has prosecuted war criminals in complex, multi-defendant, cases pursuant to U.N. Security Council Resolution 955 (1994). She was one of the prosecutors responsible for the December 2003 landmark convictions of three media executives who fanned the flames of genocide in their newspaper and radio station. That case raised important principles concerning the role of the media, which had not been addressed at the level of international criminal justice since Nuremberg. During her four years with the war crimes tribunal, she has personally supervised and undertaken sensitive investigative and fact-finding missions in numerous countries on three continents.

Ms. Monasebian is also an Adjunct Professor of International Criminal Law at the American University in Cairo, through Seton Hall University Law School. Prior to becoming a Prosecutor, Ms. Monasebian spent some seven years as a defense attorney at a prestigious New York law firm. There she specialized in international and national, complex, criminal and civil litigation at the pre-trial, trial and appellate levels, including: extradition, crimes against humanity, terrorism, money laundering, white collar crime, forfeiture, murder, contempt, securities fraud, racketeering, civil rights cases, and disciplinary matters against judges and defense attorneys. Ms. Monasebian is a member of the New York, Connecticut and Washington D.C. Bars. Prior to becoming an attorney, she was a journalist with Radioscope, a nationally syndicated urban radio news and interviews program.

Charity Kagwi–Ndungu has been a Prosecutor at both the International and National levels for the past 11 years. In addition to her prosecution experience she has also worked as a defence attorney. Ms. Kagwi-Ndungu is currently a Trial Attorney with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Office of the Prosecutor. In this position she has prosecuted war criminals in complex, multi-defendant, cases pursuant to U.N. Security Council Resolution 955 (1994). She was one of the prosecutors responsible for the December 2003 landmark convictions of three media executives who fanned the flames of genocide in their newspaper and radio station. That case raised important principles concerning the role of the media, which had not been addressed at the level of international criminal justice since Nuremberg. During her four years with the ICTR, she has personally supervised investigations and worked with lay and expert witnesses in the pursuit of Justice.

Prior to becoming a Prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Ms. Kagwi worked as a Prosecutor in the High Court and Court of Appeal in Kenya. There she was the representative of the Attorney General in Prosecuting Criminal cases at both investigatory, trial and appellate stages. She also advised the Police on evidence gathering and Prosecutorial proceeding regarding all matters of Criminal Investigations. Ms. Kagwi has also worked as Legal Counsel in the Kenya Chapter of International Federation of Women Lawyers, a Nation-wide NGO, involved in advocating, lobbying and advancing women’s rights, as well as providing legal aid to women.

Jean-Marie Biju Duval is a Paris-based lawyer who has been practising since 1986. His professional activity has centred on penal law and refugee law. He has been engaged since September, 1996 as the defence counsel for Ferdinand Nahimana, the former Rwandan media executive who as convicted in the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda’s media trial.

Thomas Kamilindi is a former Radio Rwanda journalist, based in Kigali, who is now a correspondent for BBC in Rwanda. He resigned from state run radio in Rwanda a few months before the 1994 genocide started. He knew what was coming. As a journalist with a radio station run by the Hutu dominated government of President Juvenal Habyarimana he had sometimes been asked to broadcast news repugnant to him. Messages like these, in which the minority Tutsi ethnic group was referred to as "cockroaches" and in which the Hutu majority was urged to "wipe out" the Tutsis. During the massacres which followed President Habyarimana's death in an air crash, Kamilindi was among the many liberal Hutus accused of sympathising with the Tutsi led rebel forces of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. When the killings began they were battling their way to the capital to take over the government. A Hutu married to a Tutsi, on one occasion Kamilindi was saved by a commander who happened to pass by just as a soldier pointed a gun at Kamilindi's head.

Thierry Cruvellier (chairperson) is a French journalist who has co-founded, in 1996, the organization Intermedia which has published an online newspaper on international justice Diplomatie Judiciaire. Based in Arusha, Tanzania, he has covered the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) on a full-time basis between 1997 and 2002. In 2003, he moved to Freetown where he covered the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Since 2001, he has also been a consultant for the International Crisis Group for which he authored three reports on the ICTR and another on the Special Court for Sierra Leone. He is now a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University.

In 1990-1991, Cruvellier was based in Sierra Leone as the Editor-in-Chief of a local newsmagazine. Between 1994 and 1996, he regularly covered the war in Sierra Leone as a free-lance journalist. He also worked with Reporters sans Frontières, an international Human Rights organization defending press freedom, for which he was the permanent representative in the African Great Lakes Region in 1994 and 1995, based in Rwanda.

Cruvellier holds a Masters in Journalism from Sorbonne University, Paris.

Francois-Xavier Nsanzuwera (discussant) was Prosecutor of the Republic of Rwanda from 1988 to 1995 and was also Prosecutor of the Republic in Kigali from May, 1990 until March, 1995. He also served as Secretary General of the Federation Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme (FIDH) for six years, up until his engagement by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda as an associate investigator. He was also President of the Collectif des ligues et associations de defense des droits de l’homme au Rwanda (CLADHO). He has been called on two occasions to testify before the Rwanda tribunal. In 1993 he published La magistrature rwandaise dans l'étau du pouvoir exécutif and was also one of the editors of "La justice internationale face au drame rwandais."

Panel 3: International media coverage of the Genocide

Mark Doyle has worked for the BBC since 1986 as a correspondent and producer for TV and radio. In 1994 he was one of the BBC’s East Africa Correspondents, and in that role spent much of the period of the genocide in Rwanda. He was on several occasions, during the genocide, the only foreign reporter in Kigali. Mark has also worked (1997 – 2002) as BBC West Africa Correspondent, based in Abidjan, and on other occasions worked as a resident correspondent in Dakar, Lagos and Nairobi.

Mark is currently one of the BBC’s World Affairs Correspondents, based in London. He covered the 2003 pre-Iraq war negotiations at the UN in New York and was in Cairo during the war covering Arab reactions. Most recently he has been reporting in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

Steven Livingston is Associate Professor of Political Communication and International Affairs at The George Washington University (GWU) in Washington, D.C. He holds a joint appointment in the School of Media and Public Affairs and the Elliott School of International Affairs. He is founder of the Public Diplomacy Institute (PDI) at GWU and serves as chairman of the board of the PDI. He also serves on the board of the Public Diplomacy Council, an association of US diplomats working in public diplomacy. Livingston's research and teaching focus on media/information technology and international affairs. He is especially interested in the role of advanced information technology and media in national security policymaking, and in public diplomacy.

Among other publications, Livingston has written Clarifying the CNN Effect (a monograph published by Harvard University in 1996) and The Terrorism Spectacle (Westview Press, 1994). His more recent publications include: “The New Information Environment and Diplomacy,” in Cyber-diplomacy in the 21st Century, Evan Potter (ed.); “Remote Sensing Technology and the News Media,” in Commercial Observation Satellites: At the Leading Edge of Global Transparency, John Baker, Kevin O’Connell, and Ray Williamson (eds.); “Transparency and the News Media,” in Power and Conflict in the Age of Transparency, Bernard Finel and Kristin Lord (eds.). Presently, he is leading a team of researchers at GWU that is investigating the media coverage of the 2003 war in Iraq.

Linda Melvern is an investigative journalist and writer. For several years she worked for the Sunday Times, including several years on the Insight Team. She has written six books.

A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide is her fifth book and it was published in September 2000 to critical acclaim. It was chosen book of the year in 2001 in The Observer by Geoffrey Robertson, QC. Linda Melvern was the runner-up in the 2001 Martha Gellhorn journalism award. A People Betrayed is in its fourth impression.

In April 2004 she will publish, “Conspiracy to Murder. The Rwandan Genocide”. (Verso), an account of the planning of the genocide, who was responsible and how it was perpetrated.

Linda Melvern has published numerous articles, essays and papers related to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. She has visited a wide variety of institutions in the UK and abroad in order to give presentations on the subject. These include at the Centre for Social for Social Theory and Comparative History, UCLA, The Press Union, Athens, Greece, The Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, Life After Death Conference, Kigali, 2001. The Genocide Prevention Conference, FCO and Aegis, Nottinghamshire, 2002, The John Sloan Dickey Center for International Understanding Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.

Linda Melvern is an Honorary Fellow of the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, in the Department of International Politics. An archive of the documents used in the research for her book on the genocide is in a special collection at the Hugh Owen Library, University of Wales, Aberystwyth. The archive is to be copied and lodged at the National University of Rwanda, Butare.

Linda Melvern was a consultant to the Military One prosecution team at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, (ICTR). The documents she obtained on the planning of the genocide form a large part of the documentary evidence used by the prosecution in the trial.

Anne Chaon is a journalist with Agence France Presse, who is now based in Paris. She has been an Africa specialist for AFP since 1994 and before that, reported on the Middle East. In the first weeks of the 1994 Rwanda genocide, Chaon was based in Paris, working on AFP's Africa desk. Then she reported from Rwanda for AFP in June, before heading to eastern Zaire in July of that year. She has testified against RTLM media executive Ferdinand Nahimana in Paris (during the Nahimana vs Le Nouvel Observateur court proceeding in May 1999) and before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in the media trial. She was based in Nairobi in 1995-96 for the daily newspaper Liberation, then covered Africa again for AFP from 1999-2003. Most recently, she covered the United Nations for AFP, before returning to Paris.

Jocelyn Coulon (chairperson) joined the permanent staff of the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre in 1999, as the director of the Montreal Campus and coordinator of Francophone programmes.

He completed his college and university studies in Montreal and received a degree in Political Science from the Université de Montréal.

From 1981 to 1984, he was Assistant Editor of Aéromag, a monthly magazine specializing in aeronautical and military subjects. In 1985, he joined the staff of the daily newspaper Le Devoir as a journalist. After a few months, he was designated parliamentary correspondent in Ottawa, a post he held until July 1986. He then completed a six-month internship with the Canadian Institute for International Peace and Security.

In February 1987, he resumed work at Le Devoir, becoming the Foreign Affairs Editor until 1999.

Jocelyn Coulon is the author of three books: En première ligne, Grandeurs et misères du système militaire canadien [In the Front Line: Grandeur and Misery of the Canadian Military System], Editions Le Jour, Montreal, 1991. La dernière croisade, La guerre du golfe et le rôle caché du Canada [The Last Crusade: The Gulf War and Canada’s hidden role], Editions du Méridien, Montreal, 1992. Les Casques bleus, Editions Fides, Montreal, 1994. This book is available in english: Soldier of Diplomacy, University of Toronto Press, 1998. He is also the editor of the Guide du maintien de la paix. Textes, documents, sites, Éditions Athéna, 2003.

Gil Courtemanche (discussant) is a journalist in international and third-world politics, and an author of several non-fiction works. Un dimanche à la piscine à Kigali ( A Sunday at the pool in Kigali), spent more than a year on Quebec bestseller lists. Movie production is underway with Lyla Films. The newspaper La Presse billed the book the novel of the year. The novel — penned by a journalist who spent several years in Africa — confronts the nightmare that ravaged Rwanda in April 1994, when the Hutu-led government orchestrated genocide against the Tutsi people. Courtemanche navigates a world about to be wrested apart, where the faces of the aggressors could easily be those of our neighbours, our friends, our families. The book is a solemn denunciation of poverty, ignorance, global apathy and media blindness.

Panel 4: What to do? The media and humanitarian intervention

Frank Chalk is co-director of the Montreal Institure for Genocide and Human Rights Studies. He is the co-author, with Prof. Kurt Jonassohn, of The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies (Yale University Press, 1990). Prof. Chalk’s chapters and articles have appeared in a number of books and journals, including Holocaust and Genocide Studies. He has lectured and presented papers on genocide at conferences and universities around the world and before the Prosecution Staff of the International Criminal Tribunal on the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda at The Hague.

Professor Chalk has served as President of the International Association of Genocide Scholars (June 1999-June 2001), and is a past president of the Canadian Association of African Studies. He is the Co-Director of the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies at Concordia University, where he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on the history and sociology of genocide, the Holocaust, and the history of United States foreign relations. During his sabbatical leave in the academic year 2000-2001, Prof. Chalk was a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. He is an Associate Editor of the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, scheduled for publication by the Gale Group in 2004.

Professor Chalk’s current research focuses on two areas: radio broadcasting in the incitement and interdiction of gross violations of human rights, including genocide, and the history of the domestic laws on genocide developed by nations who seek to implement through their national legislation the United Nations Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. He expects both research projects to result in books. His most recent publications include chapters on “Hate Radio in Rwanda,” published in The Path of A Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire, Howard Adelman and Astri Suhrke, editors (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press, 1999) and “Radio Broadcasting in the Incitement and Interdiction of Gross Violations of Human Rights, including Genocide,” in Genocide: Essays Toward Understanding, Early Warning, and Prevention, Roger Smith, editor (Association of Genocide Scholars, 1999).

Philippe Dahinden is a Swiss journalist. He is co-founder and former editor in chief of the Hirondelle Foundation, an international organisation of journalists, which establishes media operations in crisis areas. He has a PhD in Constitutional Law and worked as a lawyer specialized in criminal law and human rights until 1984, before working as a full time journalist for the Swiss public TV & Radio.

He first went to Rwanda in January 1991, as an observer for trials in Kigali on behalf of the International Commission of Jurists. He was later a member of the International Inquiry Commission, which investigated in Rwanda in January 1993, on behalf of the International Federation for Human Rights. He also carried out a field inquiry for Reporters without Borders, in August 1993, about the situation of journalists in Rwanda and Burundi.

During the genocide, Philippe Dahinden was in Rwanda as a reporter for Swiss TV, present on both sides of the frontline in April-May 1994. He later founded and managed the independent radio station Radio Agatashya, which covered Rwanda, Burundi and the Kivu after July 1994. He was also co-founder in 1996 of the Hirondelle News Agency at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in Arusha and was one of the witnesses of the prosecution in the Media Trial in Arusha.

Since 1994, he lived and worked for several years in Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where he co-founded the Radio Okapi network in 2002.

Mark Frohardt, is Africa Regional Director for Internews. He joined Internews in 1999 to pursue his longtime interest in bringing media technologies to bear on crisis situations in isolated parts of the world. As Deputy Chief of Mission for the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda (May 1995 to June 1997), Frohardt headed HRFOR Mission operations, including human rights programs, monitored ongoing human rights violations, and provided the principal analysis of the political and security situation in country guiding HRFOR policy in that period. Prior to his work in Rwanda, Frohardt established the Washington offices of the Center for the Study of Societies in Crisis, which included the development of practical protection strategies for minorities at risk of human rights violations in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This work was an outgrowth of his years (1990-1993) as an Emergency Management Consultant, working with INTERTECT Relief and Reconstruction Corp. in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Russia, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyz Republic.

Paul Heinbecker is the inaugural director of the Centre for Global Relations, Governance and Policy at Wilfrid Laurier University and Senior Research Fellow at the independent research Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) in Waterloo. These appointments follow a distinguished career with the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Heinbecker joined the Department of External Affairs in 1965, with postings abroad in Ankara and Stockholm, and in Paris with the Permanent Delegation of Canada to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. In Ottawa, Mr. Heinbecker served, inter alia, as Director of the United States General Relations Division and as Chairman of the Policy Development Secretariat in External Affairs. From 1985 to 1989, he was Minister in Washington. From 1989 to 1992, Mr. Heinbecker served as Prime Minister Mulroney’s Chief Foreign Policy Advisor and speech writer and as Assistant Secretary to the Cabinet for Foreign and Defence Policy. In 1992, he was named Ambassador to Germany, where inter alia he promoted German investment in Canada. In 1996, he was appointed Assistant Deputy Minister, Global and Security Policy, and Political Director in the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Mr. Heinbecker led the interdepartmental task force on Kosovo and helped to negotiate the end of that war. He was also head of the delegation for the negotiation of the Climate Change Convention in Kyoto. In the summer of 2000, Mr. Heinbecker was appointed Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations, where he was a leading advocate for the creation of the International Criminal Court and a proponent of compromise on Iraq. Mr. Heinbecker received his Bachelor of Arts Degree (Honours) from Waterloo Lutheran University in 1965, and an Honorary Doctorate of Law from the same institution in 1993. He was Alumnus of the Year at WLU in 2003. He is married to AyÕe Köymen; they have two daughters, Yasemin and Céline.

Lt.-Gen. (retired) Romeo Dallaire (chairperson)

Jean-Marie Higiro (discussant) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at Western New England College in Springfield, Mass. He holds a Ph.D. in Communication from the University of Texas at Austin, an MS in Radio-Television, Syracuse University, and MA in History, University of Montreal and BA in History, National University of Rwanda. He has also served as a visiting professor at Miami University and the University of New Hampshire at Durham. From July 31, 1993 to April 6, 1994, he was Director of the Rwandan Information Office (ORINFOR) in Kigali, Rwanda. ORINFOR is a public agency that manages Radio-Rwanda, Rwandan Television, the Rwandan Press Agency and two weekly Government newspapers. Prior to that he was director of Radio Rwanda and a professor history at the National Pedagogic Institute, Butare, Rwanda.

 

 

 

 
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